|We try to use technology where ever possible to make the excavation, analysis and publication go as quickly, efficiently and error-free as possible. Technology has also allowed us to collect new kinds of data that give us new insights into Neandertal sites.|
One of the
key pieces of computer equipment is the total station (shown in the
photo). This instrument can measure the three-dimensional location
of an artifact to within 1 or 2 millimeters in seconds. The operator
points the instrument at a reflective prism held over the object.
The instruments bounces an infrared beam off of the prism and calculates
the distance. The distance combined with two angles, one vertical
and the other horizontal, allows the computer to calculate the X, Y and Z
coordinates. These coordinates are then passed electronically to a
laptop or hand-held computer running
some software we wrote.
This software allows other observations to be attached to each measure.
For us these include the number of the object, the archaeological level,
the kind of object (eg. bone, stone, etc.) the name of the excavator, and
the date and the time.
data that come from the total station are integrated into a geographic
information system (GIS) each day (see also
software we wrote).
A GIS allows spatial information about where each artifact was uncovered
to be easily integrated with other kinds of data, like what kind of object
it is. In this way we can use the GIS to search for patterning in
the levels we excavate. Some kinds of patterning are indicative of
Neandertal behaviors, but other kinds of patterning tell us something
about natural processes that may have disturbed the site after the
Neandertals left their artifacts behind. The GIS also allows us to
check our data each day and verify that it is error free.
artifact, as it is excavated, is given a unique identifier (ID) that
consists of the name of the square (H12 in this case) and a sequential
number. This ID is all important as it links the artifact with
information on where it was found and what it is analyzed as. We
mark the ID on the artifact itself, but we also put each artifact in a bag
with a barcode. The barcode can then be scanned as the artifact
moves through the laboratory process. This greatly speeds some
operations, like sorting artifacts by archaeological level (analogues to
sorting mail by zip code - it goes faster if machines can read the codes),
and it reduces the likelihood of bad IDs being entered into the system.
lab, the stone tools are studied using a network of computers running
specialized data entry
software. This software interacts with the main database to
insure that each artifact has a valid identification number and that each
artifact is studied only once.
The data entry program collects data using prepared menus that reduce the possibility of typos and generally speed the data entry process. In addition, measurements are made with electronic calipers (shown in photo) connect directly to the computer.
There is more about how a total station works at one of our Pech IV web sites.
And more on computers in archaeology as well.